3.4 Theme 2: Brisbane's outstanding lifestyle

3.4.1 Strategic outcomes

(1) The strategic outcomes for an outstanding lifestyle city are:
(a) Brisbane’s residents live in a city that is well designed and preserves its friendly and safe neighbourhoods, active and healthy lifestyles, whilst encouraging vibrant and creative centres.
(b) Brisbane is defined by the visual markers and amenity created by a visually dominant City Centre, concentrated centres along transport corridors, the Brisbane River, major hills and valleys, bushlands and open space, traditional character suburbs, mature urban vegetation and the bay and bayside areas and islands. Brisbane's neighbourhoods each express their individual identity.
(c) Brisbane has locations within the city which have cultural heritage significance to a broad range of groups and individuals. Character housing provides a link with Brisbane's history and helps to reinforce a strong sense of place and community identity. Brisbane's character elements and built cultural heritage are appreciated, protected and managed. Locations of cultural significance for Aboriginal people are recognised and protected.
(d) Brisbane’s landscape and built assets reinforce the subtropical climate, help create a sense of place, provide high scenic amenity and ensure safety and comfort in sustaining active and outdoor lifestyles.
(e) Brisbane’s buildings and public spaces exhibit good urban design which results in places and spaces that are highly functional, accessible, attractive and sustainable.
(f) Brisbane is a city of opportunity which provides employment choices for people and a diverse range of housing forms to meet the needs of a growing population and catering to people at all stages of their lives. Brisbane delivers housing in a range of dwelling styles and densities.
(g) Brisbane provides housing choice which allows people to live in close proximity to their place of work and support their local economies, services and businesses.
(h) Brisbane's major new housing opportunities will be provided within the existing urban area and form of the city by infill and other types of redevelopment. This will ensure opportunities for residents to enjoy easy access to employment, goods, services, community facilities and also to protect Brisbane's green edges.
(i) Brisbane's housing choices are integrated within the communities and neighbourhoods of the city in a form appropriate to the locality and are consistent with the outcomes for the relevant Growth Nodes on Selected Transport Corridors or Suburban Living Areas.
(j) Brisbane's healthy and safe communities are ensured through development which is designed to minimise environmental risks, contribute to crime prevention and promote active travel and recreation.
(k) As a subtropical city, Brisbane has managed the natural hazards of a subtropical climate and living on a floodplain for generations. Council takes a lead on this by undertaking land use planning, ensuring that property owners are aware of the risks, planning for appropriate infrastructure and contributing to effective emergency responses.
(l) The challenges of natural hazards will continue and as the understanding of hazards develop, the city will continuously improve, adapt, enhance and develop more sophisticated risk-management approaches that respond to the full spectrum of probable impacts.
(m) Brisbane is a city well adapted to its environment, managing the risks associated with natural hazards in a way that balances awareness of risk with optimum use of land.
(n) The risks associated with natural hazards in Brisbane are avoided or managed considering the capacity of communities to respond, enhance public safety, protect property and enhance the social, economic and environmental wellbeing of the city.
(o) Development does not materially increase the extent or the severity of natural hazards.
(p) Brisbane has a broad range of community facilities that support the community's recreational, cultural and social activities, promote the physical, cultural and social wellbeing of the community, and are located predominantly in centres and Growth Nodes on Selected Transport Corridors.
(q) Brisbane's large and diverse network of more than 2,000 parks comprising 14,000ha is expanded to provide more space for socialising, relaxing and outdoor activities, particularly in areas of the city experiencing population and employment growth.
(r) Brisbane's parks network is accessible and designed to meet the needs of changing demographics and changing trends in recreation activities.
(s) Brisbane's safe and healthy communities are protected from the adverse impacts of noise, air, social, industrial hazards or traffic effects through mitigation strategies.
(t) Brisbane's key civic spaces and iconic vistas are identified and protected, maintained and enhanced for posterity.
(2) The strategic outcomes for Brisbane's outstanding lifestyle comprise the following elements:
(a) Element 2.1—Brisbane’s identity;
(b) Element 2.2—Brisbane's housing and accommodation choices;
(c) Element 2.3—Brisbane's healthy and safe communities;
(d) Element 2.4—Brisbane's community facilities, services, open space and recreation infrastructure.

3.4.2 Element 2.1—Brisbane's identity

Table—Specific outcomes and land use strategies
Specific outcomes
Land use strategies
Sense of place
Brisbane has a strong urban legibility.
World-leading design standards guide new iconic developments on selected City Centre sites.
Larger buildings are planned for and deliberately located to enable the design and function of such buildings to contribute positively to Brisbane's natural and built form legibility.
Public realm design, building setbacks, vegetation and landscaping contribute positively to Brisbane's natural and built form and legibility.
Brisbane has a clear identity as a subtropical river city.
Development protects and enhances the recreational and cultural values of the Brisbane River.
Development design includes and protects visual and physical connections to the river and waterways, integrating internal and external spaces.
In the City Centre, priority is given to access to the river for pedestrians through building design, attractive streetscapes, public spaces and arcades as well as pedestrian and cycle river crossings.
Brisbane is experienced as a series of varied, distinctly separate neighbourhoods.
Distinct urban neighbourhoods are identified and described, and land use and built form tailored accordingly.
Development in activity centres and Growth Nodes on Selected Transport Corridors is carefully designed to create identifiable urban precincts.
Features currently contributing to a community's sense of place are identified, protected and reinforced.
Brisbane's urban public realm contributes to the legibility, identity and sense of place of local communities.
The public domain in centres and Growth Nodes on Selected Transport Corridors is attractive being well planned, well designed and well landscaped.
Development in centres and Growth Nodes on Selected Transport Corridors contributes to well integrated and contextually appropriate public art and community expression in local public domain, streetscapes and buildings.
Development of Future Suburban Living Areas supports the emergence of an identifiable local character.
Key civic spaces are identified and protected, maintained and enhanced via overlays.
Brisbane's development and infrastructure strengthens local identity.
Development responds to and reinforces locally distinctive design, landscape, heritage, social values, patterns of development and culture.
Infrastructure is carefully designed to contribute to sense of place and protect local attributes, values and features.
Brisbane's scenic assets, important cultural landscapes and urban views which contribute to the city's distinctive character are protected and made more accessible.
Views of Brisbane's important landscapes as seen from key public vantage points are identified and protected.
Universal access is provided to public vantage points, including key sites on the Brisbane River, the foreshores and high points.
Iconic vistas are identified and protected, maintained and enhanced via overlays.
Subtropical urban design
Brisbane's subtropical design of development and spaces creates a point of difference and distinguishes the city from other capital cities.
The siting, orientation and design of development and public spaces promotes subtropical urban design.
Brisbane's backyards contribute strongly to local character by providing green landscapes in urban areas.
Development in low density areas of Suburban Living Areas predominantly maintains a block pattern that accommodates backyards and large trees.
Brisbane's subtropical character is accentuated by urban design where development supports outdoor living and subtropical planting that reduce urban heat island effects.
Deep planting is incorporated as a feature into higher density development.
Development provides landscaping and maintains vegetation to provide natural shade to mitigate heat island impacts and create comfortable pedestrian environments.
Development is encouraged to incorporate best-practice landscaping solutions.
Brisbane's transport routes are highly shaded to promote active travel between local destinations and provide major roads with clearly identifiable markers for travel throughout the city.
Neighbourhood plans and the city-wide streetscape hierarchy identify subtropical boulevards and a network hierarchy of street types, where development provides greater numbers of street trees along identified transport and activity routes.
Development and transport infrastructure creates continuous, well-shaded, green routes along identified major roads.
Brisbane's public infrastructure and parks reinforce a subtropical landscape.
Public infrastructure is designed to respond to a subtropical climate and incorporates landscaping, shade and water management features.
Parks, including urban commons, are provided in centres and Growth Nodes on Selected Transport Corridors, Suburban Living Areas and Future Suburban Living Areas and are appropriately designed and detailed to function as an 'outdoor living room' for surrounding residents and workers.
Urban design and architecture
The urban design of Brisbane's development is cognisant of the role and function of the individual area in which it is located and reinforces or reinterprets the character of that area.
The design of development in centres and Growth Nodes on Selected Transport Corridors, Suburban Living Areas and Future Suburban Living Areas contributes positively to the desired or emerging character, sustainability, health and wellbeing, legibility and local context of the neighbourhood.
Brisbane's development forms a positive part of the city's legacy and enhances a site's value, the public domain and the city.
Buildings and public spaces exhibit design excellence in form, function and detailing, and enhance the city through the creation of high-quality, contemporary and well-articulated subtropical urban streetscapes.
Brisbane's urban environments, public domains and movement systems are well located, well connected, permeable and legible.
The road hierarchy, streetscape hierarchy and bicycle network determines the distribution and type of public spaces and pedestrian and cycle connections between destinations and public transport stops.
Provision of open space is appropriate to the scale and function of the area and is integrated with the urban structure.
Brisbane has a high level of land use and movement network connectivity within centres and Growth Nodes on Selected Transport Corridors.
Precinct, street and building design:
(a) provides a high level of connectivity and accessibility for pedestrians, public transport, business and services;
(b) provides direct, convenient, comfortable, safe and equitable pedestrian and cycle routes between public transport stops, centres, key destinations and adjoining neighbourhoods;
(c) provides fine-grain pedestrian, cycle and mobility aid permeability, including privately owned and publicly accessible arcades;
(d) integrates with Brisbane's traditional grid street layout and includes signage and clear sightlines.
Brisbane's smaller civic spaces on development sites and local streets merge to optimise local public domain needs.
Streetscape hierarchies identify circumstances where arcades, building and corner setbacks and widened footpath areas can contribute to the creation of small, fine-grain open spaces.
Brisbane's urban environment contributes to an outstanding lifestyle for the city.
The public domain, public places and development offer people a range of opportunities and experiences to live, work and play in their local neighbourhood and provide an urban environment which:
(a) creates high-quality, legible, useable and durable spaces;
(b) incorporates opportunities for relaxing or socialising;
(c) is inclusive and celebrates local culture and identity;
(d) is safe, familiar, comfortable and connected;
(e) exhibits best-practice subtropical building design;
(f) integrates landscape and building form to improve amenity;
(g) encourages activity and wellbeing of residents, workers and visitors;
(h) is stimulating, enjoyable and useable through balancing variety and consistency in building form, scale and densities.
Brisbane's urban design ensures that public safety and perceptions of public safety are maximised.
Crime prevention through environmental design principles are used in the siting, design and functioning of buildings, pedestrian and cycle paths, transport facilities, public domain and other pedestrian-focused spaces.
Specific crime prevention through environmental design requirements are tailored to different land uses and specific vulnerable elements and settings.
Heritage, character and cultural values
Brisbane's important buildings and places that are important to the city’s history are protected.
Heritage places and precincts of important local, city-wide or State cultural heritage significance or special significance to Aboriginal people are identified and protected in accordance with the principles of The Burra Charter: The Australia ICOMOS Charter for Places of Cultural Significance.
The adaptation or re-use of heritage places for purposes that retain the significance of the place is supported.
Development in or adjacent to identified heritage places or precincts protects the cultural heritage significance of the place or precincts.
Brisbane's distinctive suburban identity is reinforced by its character housing precincts.
Character buildings built in 1946 or before are protected via overlays.
Development proposals maintain the traditional building character housing that individually and collectively contributes to the distinctive character of the area and streetscape.
Traditional housing styles and materials, such as timber and tin and masonry construction, are recognised as being important to character areas and are retained. Surrounding development respects traditional design elements while allowing for compatible innovative design responses.
Development accords with neighbourhood plans which:
(a) refine character aspects and overlays to better balance the demand for growth with character protection;
(b) identify locally responsive strategies to better integrate character buildings and precincts with anticipated growth and development.
Other small shop and office buildings built in 1946 or before, known as commercial character buildings:
(a) are protected from being demolished, removed or significantly altered and are afforded qualified commercial use for low-impact activities to ensure their continued contribution to the local character and lifestyle of the city;
(b) fulfil a complementary role to other non-residential and centre uses in the growth areas of the city.
Brisbane residents' appreciation of character areas, heritage buildings and the city's history is increased.
Development and public domain design protects and directs attention towards local views of landmark heritage or character elements or iconic vistas identified in neighbourhood plans and overlays.
Development provides noteworthy information regarding the cultural or historic significance of a site through works such as local heritage trails and interpretive signage.
Public domain design and public art complements or interprets local history and character elements.
The cultural connections that Aboriginal people have to Brisbane are recognised, maintained and protected in accordance with the Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Act 2003.
Public domain design promotes Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander art and culture and acknowledges the history of Traditional Owners in locations of high cultural significance.
Culturally significant sites and cultural landscapes are identified, protected and maintained.
Meeting Places of contemporary importance to the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities are protected and maintained.

3.4.3 Element 2.2 – Brisbane's housing and accommodation choices

Table—Specific outcomes and land use strategies
Specific outcomes
Land use strategies
Brisbane's dwelling needs for future populations are met by matching growth to the existing and planned infrastructure in the city.
Increased densities within Growth Nodes on Selected Transport Corridors are identified through a neighbourhood planning process and are in accordance with the Brisbane CityShape theme to accommodate anticipated future population.
Brisbane's housing is diverse in type and form, offering choice to different household types and income levels and individuals with specific housing needs.
Residential development contributes to housing diversity, particularly supporting ageing in place and assisted living and housing suited to households on different incomes, within each neighbourhood and across the city, as outlined in the applicable zone or neighbourhood plan.
Small-scale complementary uses (care co-located uses defined activity group) that are suited to integration and co-location with retirement facilities and residential care facilities are facilitated to support the provision of specialised services and retail for residents and visitors.
Brisbane provides its temporary population ready access to suitable accommodation for business visitors, tourists and students.
A range of accessible accommodation opportunities catering to a growing number of visiting professionals, temporary business visitors, tourists and students are conveniently located at or in proximity to major business and tourism destinations.
There are opportunities for accommodation of employees in residential precincts in proximity to centres.
New hotels and extensions to existing hotels are facilitated in the City Centre and other appropriate locations.
Brisbane's existing Rural Neighbourhoods are maintained without expansion.
Given the challenges in providing infrastructure in Rural Neighbourhoods they are not envisaged to expand.
Brisbane's last remaining greenfield development areas are well planned and well delivered.
Future Suburban Living Areas exhibit a strong sense of place and demonstrate best-practice urban design outcomes, including building on the landscape features of the locality and a high degree of legibility and permeability.
Brisbane provides a variety of accommodation and housing near the city's major institutions and other Special Centres.
Land is identified for a range of housing types including rooming accommodation, suitable to tertiary and international students, staff and visitors to major special-purpose centres or community institutions, such as hospitals, at appropriate locations proximate to education campuses or health institutions or along high-frequency public transport routes and with good access to urban services.
Outside activity centres, Growth Nodes on Selected Transport Corridors and geographically nominated locations, rooming accommodation for students is supported where the surrounding amenity is maintained and there is good access to higher education campuses by way of public or active transport.
Other special purpose institutions, for example defence bases, establish accommodation either on site or nearby where well served by transport and other urban facilities, as required to meet the particular housing choice needs for staff and visitors.

3.4.4 Element 2.3 – Brisbane's healthy and safe communities

Table—Specific outcomes and land use strategies
Specific outcomes
Land use strategies
Natural hazards (flood, bushfire, landslide, coastal hazards and disturbance of acid sulfate soils)
Brisbane's people and properties are not exposed to unacceptable risks as a result of landslides, bushfires, flood hazard, coastal inundation and disturbance of acid sulfate soils.
Development prioritises, in order, the safety of people, protection of public infrastructure and protection of private property in the management of the economic, social and environmental impacts of natural hazards on the city.
Development avoids the unsafe isolation of communities by natural hazards.
Building design protects people and property from natural hazards.
Development provides for safe and effective emergency services access and evacuation.
Development in areas where isolation cannot be avoided is able to provide for safe evacuation or safe refuge.
Brisbane adopts a risk-management approach to natural hazards where both the planning scheme and development are responsive to evolving information about natural hazards and the consequential assessment of risk. Risk management balances the economic, social and environmental costs and benefits to the city.
Development accords with the hazard assessment and mapping for flood, bushfire, landslide, coastal hazards and acid sulfate soils.
Development in locations susceptible to flood, bushfire, landslide, coastal hazards and acid sulfate soil disturbance addresses the predicted risks, in particular, increased rainfall intensity, changes in overall rainfall, rising sea levels and increasing air temperatures.
Development responds to the identification of hazard-affected areas and the approach to their management is revised.
Brisbane's development is located, sited, designed and constructed to tolerate, not worsen, and adapt to natural hazards.
Development is only located in higher hazard- affected areas where there is an overriding need in the public interest for the development to be located in the hazard-affected area, such as some essential community infrastructure, and the impacts and risks from hazards are to be mitigated.
Development for vulnerable, hard-to- evacuate and potentially hazardous uses is located according to ability to tolerate natural hazards, and its accessibility to the critical infrastructure and movement network.
Development accords with the zoning and overlay provisions of the site which:
(a) allows for an optimal range of uses consistent with the nature and degree of natural hazards, recognising the value of land as a valuable community, economic and environmental resource;
(b) discourages the inappropriate use of land which is subject to unacceptable risk from natural hazards.
Strategic assessment of natural hazards informs land use decisions. Development in areas severely affected by natural hazards (particularly in the case of flooding) is not further intensified for inappropriate uses and is otherwise hazard tolerant.
Development accords with the land use allocations and assessment benchmarks of overlays intended to meet particular risks from natural hazards.
Development in areas where natural hazards are able to be mitigated with site-based responses is designed, sited and constructed to protect the safety and amenity of users and provide resilience to natural hazards, including minimising cost and time to recover from natural disaster events.
Development within Growth Nodes on Selected Transport Corridors is to avoid areas affected by natural hazards or risks are able to be mitigated within the requirements of zones, neighbourhood plans and overlays.
Development does not directly or cumulatively increase the extent or severity of a natural hazard, or create adverse impacts on others.
Development avoids significant reduction of flood storage or conveyance capacity which adversely impacts on other parts of the city.
Development manages stormwater flows to protect the health and safety of landowners.
Brisbane has adapted to the risks posed by natural hazards.
Development is designed, approved and operated, taking into account the capacity of occupants to manage the predicted risk of natural hazards; to enable action to be taken to avoid, mitigate and respond to risk and impacts from natural hazards.
Development in existing urban areas severely affected by natural hazards will transition to more hazard-tolerant uses over time, by avoiding further intensification of inappropriate uses and by encouraging more hazard-tolerant land uses.
Brisbane's emergency services and community are well prepared to respond to natural hazards.
Development is operated in a way that minimises the risk to people and property from natural hazards.
Occupants and owners of development are informed with regard to natural hazard management for their properties.

3.4.5 Element 2.4 – Brisbane's community facilities, services, open space and recreation infrastructure

Table—Specific outcomes and land use strategies
Specific outcomes
Land use strategies
Brisbane has a range of accessible multi-purpose community facilities, services and open spaces which meet the physical, social and cultural needs of the local and wider community.
Development provides land for community facilities where identified as trunk infrastructure in the Local government infrastructure plan.
Development for community services and indoor community facilities:
(a) is located in or near centres and public transport stations; or
(b) is encouraged to cluster around existing facilities and link with the active travel and public park network.
Development of community hubs in the City Centre, corridor hubs and Major Centres is actively encouraged.
Partnerships that enable the provision of community facilities are planned and encouraged.
Development protects, maintains and enhances key civic spaces to provide for the informal recreation needs of workers, visitors and residents of the city centre and the wider city and regional population.
Brisbane's existing and planned community facilities and services are protected and appropriately located.
Potential amenity impacts from the development of community facilities or services in residential neighbourhoods will be considered in relation to the community benefit that the facility or service will provide to the broader community.
Development protects the land allocated for community facilities such that if uses cease:
(a) where the community purpose is still required by the community, it is retained by integration with the new use;
(b) the land is re-used for another community purpose needed by the local community;
(c) the land is only to be used for another purpose where it can be shown that the use has relocated or is absolutely no longer required by the Brisbane community.
The redevelopment of government and institutional sites for a use not fulfilling a community facilities purpose is to ensure that the use integrates with the surrounding area and provides greater and direct compensatory community benefits that meet identified needs.
Development enables community facilities and services, such as education institutions to provide broad community access to their facilities.
Development of non-community facilities and services on the site are complementary and ancillary to the community facilities and services and do not compromise the ability or capacity of the facilities and services to be delivered or operate.
Brisbane's parks and open spaces provide a diversity of experiences.
Parks are planned and managed to provide a diversity of experiences including informal recreation, formal sports, community gatherings, active travel, landscape amenity and nature-based recreation.
Management strategies in natural area parks balance increasing pressures for outdoor recreation pursuits with the biodiversity and landscape values of these parks.
Urban commons form civic nodes and act as local gathering spaces with high patronage levels.
Urban commons are generally co-located with other community facilities in Growth Nodes on Selected Transport Corridors and centres and are connected by a choice of pathways to other public spaces, public transport and key destinations.
Urban commons are subtropical in character and each has a distinctive identity to create a strong sense of place.
Urban commons are designed to be inclusive, multifunctional and meet the informal recreation needs of residents, workers and visitors.
Urban commons which are of an appropriate size are designed to support cultural activities such as events and festivals to strengthen community identity.
Brisbane's arts and cultural development is supported.
Development accords with neighbourhood plans that identify locations suitable for cultural precincts and for appropriate arts and cultural infrastructure and facilities.
Development for tourist entertainment and cultural facilities are encouraged in readily identifiable and accessible locations in cultural precincts.
Development or redevelopment of a centre or Future Suburban Living Area provides appropriate public spaces for cultural activities, events or festivals.
Brisbane has enhanced sport and recreation facilities.
Development protects the land used for privately owned sport and recreation facilities, such that:
(a) the sport and recreation use is retained;
(b) if redeveloped, the land is re-used for another form of sport or recreation use;
(c) the land is only used for another purpose where it can be demonstrably shown that the use has been relocated within the locality or is absolutely not required by the Brisbane community any longer.
Publicly owned indoor recreation facilities are designed as multi-purpose facilities capable of responding to changing community needs.
Brisbane has an integrated and high-quality open space network which continues to expand to serve a growing population.
Development protects existing parks and open space and land identified in neighbourhood plans for new open spaces.
Development protects park infrastructure identified in the Local government infrastructure plan, the Long term infrastructure plans and the open space in the Greenspace System.
Development which relocates uses from parks to community hubs and facilities is encouraged as one means of increasing capacity for new open space activities in public parks.
Development provides for water sensitive urban design to be incorporated throughout the public domain, promoting water re-use and improving amenity.
Brisbane suffers no net loss of open space values.
Development for urban infrastructure is limited to the footprint of existing infrastructure or fully considers alternative locations before considering locations identified in the open space, sport and recreation, conservation or environmental management zones.
Development for urban infrastructure that results in the loss of open space is offset by the provision of new open space, or improvements to the quality of existing open space to provide a higher level of service.
Brisbane has private and accessible communal open spaces serving a diverse range of open space, recreation, sustainability and social needs.
Development for larger sized multiple dwellings provides communal open space which is designed to suit the likely resident profile.
Development provides for innovative landscaping outcomes such as green walls and green roofs as an integral part of a site's open space design where appropriate.
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