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9.3.14 Multiple dwelling code

9.3.14.1 Application

(1) This code applies to assessing a material change of use if:
(a) assessable development where the code is an applicable code identified in the assessment criteria column of a table of assessment for a material change of use (section 5.5) or a neighbourhood plan (section 5.9); or
(b) impact assessable development for a multiple dwelling or a use of a similar nature.
(2) When using this code, reference should be made to section 1.5 and section 5.3.3.
(3) This code is used in conjunction with other codes on the basis of the zone determining the base code. This is particularly relevant to the application of this code where development is located in a zone in the centre zones category or the Mixed use zone. In that instance and by way of example, the zone code and the centre or mixed use code determine the basis of development and this code prevails to the extent of the multiple dwelling component of that development and how it integrates with the built form outcomes of the centres zone category or the Mixed use zone.

Note—Where this code includes performance outcomes or acceptable outcomes that relate to:

Note—This code does not apply to building work involving internal alterations where the proposed works are fully contained within the existing building. Enclosure of car parking areas extending more than 1m above ground level is considered assessable development.

Note—An active frontage – residential may be specified in a neighbourhood plan and/or identified in the Active frontages in residential zones overlay. Where non-residential development is proposed, the Active frontages in residential zones overlay code is also applicable.

9.3.14.2 Purpose

(1) The purpose of the Multiple dwelling code is to assess the suitability of development to which this code applies.
(2) The purpose of the code will be achieved through the following overall outcomes:
(a) Development has a site area and frontage width that is sufficient for the scale and form of a multiple dwelling development, to deliver a comfortable living environment with minimal impacts on neighbours.
(b) Development is transit supportive and where the multiple dwelling is situated in the immediate vicinity of a railway or bus station, it is orientated and designed to contribute to a safe, attractive and walkable neighbourhood.
(c) Development in the Low density residential zone is located on larger sites that are accessible and well serviced by public transport and infrastructure.
(d) Development does not isolate or negatively impact on the development potential or future residential amenity of adjoining sites.
(e) Development has a bulk, scale, form and intensity that integrates with the existing and intended neighbourhood structure for the area as expressed by zone, zone precinct and neighbourhood plan outcomes, and is consistent with:
(i) the location and street context of the site;
(ii) its proximity to an activity centre, higher capacity public transport services, or other community facilities;
(iii) the capacity of infrastructure.
(f) Development includes an adaptable ground storey where in strategic locations such as in close proximity to high-frequency public transport.
(g) Development in the Low density residential zone or Infill housing zone precinct of the Character residential zone includes a range of detached and attached building forms and is of an intensity that reflects the lower density form and character of these zones.
(h) Development is of a height that is appropriate to the strategic and local context and meets community expectations consistent with the following:
(i) 15 storeys in the Up to 15 storeys zone precinct of the High density residential zone;
(ii) 8 storeys in the Up to 8 storeys zone precinct of the High density residential zone;
(iii) 5 storeys in the Medium density residential zone;
(iv) 3 storeys in the Up to 3 storeys zone precinct of the Low–medium density residential zone;
(v) 2 or 3 storeys in the 2 or 3 storey mix zone precinct of the Low–medium density residential zone;
(vi) 2 storeys in the 2 storey zone precinct of the Low–medium density residential zone;
(vii) 2 storeys in the Infill housing zone precinct of the Character residential zone;
(viii) 2 storeys in the Low density residential zone.
(i) Development provides setbacks and separation of buildings that contribute to the amenity of residents within and adjoining the site and to Brisbane’s high-quality subtropical streetscapes and public spaces.
(j) Development in or adjoining lower density residential areas uses side boundary setbacks and built form height transitions to manage the interface with those areas and reflect the amenity, form and character of those areas.
(k) Development of a multiple dwelling positively contributes to the immediate streetscape and pedestrian environment with highly articulated building facades and varied roof form elements.
(l) Development ensures that the proportion of buildings, design features, on-site open spaces and landscaping provide:
(i) an attractive streetscape interface that contributes to Brisbane's character and identity, high quality subtropical streetscapes and public space network;
(ii) a high level of amenity for occupants and adjoining residents including access to natural light, sunlight and breeze to support outdoor subtropical living.
(m) Development of adaptable housing meets the needs of the community now and into the future.
(n) Development provides open space consistent with the following:
(i) communal open space and covered outdoor private open spaces provided for each multiple dwelling capitalise on Brisbane’s subtropical climate, maximise outdoor living opportunities and enhance amenity for residents;
(ii) large-scale multiple dwelling development provides useable high-quality communal open space for residents that is accessible and attractive;
(iii) small-scale multiple dwellings provide greater private open space for each dwelling rather than communal open space.
(o) Development provides on-site landscaping that contributes to the subtropical landscape character and microclimate of the neighbourhood and site with deep-planting areas for the protection or establishment of large, subtropical shade trees.
(p) Development provides parking which is integrated into the site and building and does not negatively impact on the site or adjoining sites or the quality and amenity of the streetscape.
(q) Development interfaces with adjoining residential uses and is managed to mitigate amenity impacts including protecting visual privacy through appropriate separation of buildings and screening.
(r) Development ensures that building location and design minimises residents' exposure to air and noise pollution.
(s) Development provides design elements that retain and support local character identity and strengthens site features, such as views, heritage, significant vegetation or significant corners, particularly where a landmark site.

9.3.14.3 Assessment criteria

The following table identifies the assessment criteria for assessable development.

Table 9.3.14.3.A—Criteria for assessable development
Performance outcomes
Acceptable outcomes
PO1
Development has a site area and frontage width that is sufficient to:
(a) accommodate the scale and form of multiple dwelling buildings considering site features such as heritage or character buildings and slope;
(b) deliver useable communal open space areas and private open spaces;
(c) achieve viable areas of deep planting and landscaping to retain significant vegetation and protect or establish large subtropical shade trees;
(d) achieve safe and convenient vehicle access to the site;
(e) accommodate on-site parking and vehicle manoeuvring for residents, visitors and service providers;
(f) accommodate the location and size requirements of service authorities and site services to minimise adverse visual and amenity impacts on neighbours and the streetscape;
(g) minimise the impact of new driveways on the streetscape.
AO1
Development has a site area and frontage width that meets the minimum requirements set out in:
(a) a neighbourhood plan; or
(b) if no neighbourhood plan applies or no requirements are specified in the neighbourhood plan, the requirements set out in Table 9.3.14.3.B.

Note—The site frontage is measured at the property line on the primary road boundary.

PO2
Development does not isolate or negatively impact on the development potential or future residential amenity of adjoining sites.
AO2
Development in the High density residential zone or the Medium density residential zone ensures that:
(a) the site area and frontage width of an adjoining site in the High density residential zone or the Medium density residential zone meets the minimum requirements set out in:
(b) a neighbourhood plan; or
(c) if no neighbourhood plan applies or no requirements are specified in the neighbourhood plan, the requirements set out in Table 9.3.14.3.B; or
(d) an indicative concept plan demonstrates that development can be physically achieved on the adjoining site at a later stage.
PO3
Development for a large-scale multiple dwelling contributes to neighbourhood structure and integrates with the existing neighbourhood through:
(a) the establishment or extension of public streets and pathways;
(b) the provision of parks and other public spaces as appropriate to the scale of development;
(c) inclusion of a mix of dwelling types, tenures and forms;
(d) buildings that address existing streets;
(e) building height and setback transitions to an adjoining existing dwelling house and areas of lower density residential development.
AO3
Development on a site 7,000m2 or greater is in accordance with a structure plan.

Note—A structure plan is prepared in accordance with Structure planning planning scheme policy provisions relating to development in the Emerging community zone.

PO4
Development adjoining or in the immediate vicinity of a railway or bus station or in a location identified in a neighbourhood plan, must actively support a high level of personal and community safety.
AO4
Development within 200m walking distance of a dedicated public pedestrian access point of a railway or bus station or in a location identified in a neighbourhood plan, is treated as having an active frontage designed to:
(a) include a ground storey that can be adapted for conversion to and between non-residential and residential uses;
(b) facilitate safe, logical and direct pedestrian access to the railway or busway station entry points;
(c) activate public space and the edges of the railway or bus station environment;
(d) create vibrant and attractive street environments;
(e) enable casual surveillance of streets, public spaces and the immediate station environment entries and platform.
PO5
Development is of a bulk and scale that is consistent with the intended form and character of the local area having regard to:
(a) existing buildings that are to be retained;
(b) significant infrastructure or service constraints such as tunnels;
(c) existing and proposed building heights in the local area and street;
(d) adjoining buildings and separation of buildings necessary to ensure impacts on residential amenity and privacy are minimised;
(e) the impact of slope.
AO5
Development is contained within the building envelope for the site created by applying:
(a) the maximum building height in Table 9.3.14.3.B;
(b) front, rear and side boundary setback requirements in Table 9.3.14.3.C;
(c) car parking boundary setback requirements in Table 9.3.14.3.E;
(d) building separation requirements in Table 9.3.14.3.F;
(e) acceptable outcomes for building height transitions where required.
Refer to Figure b and Figure c.

Note—This acceptable outcome can be demonstrated by the preparation of a building envelope plan, elevations and sections.

PO6
Development has a building height that is consistent with the streetscape local context and intent for the area having regard to:
(a) proximity to high-frequency public transport services;
(b) the predominant height of existing or approved buildings in the street;
(c) providing appropriate separation and a sensitive transition between houses and higher scale building forms;
(d) street conditions such as street width;
(e) the topography of the area and site slope;
(f) view points and corridors;
(g) solar access to key public spaces and adjoining buildings.
AO6.1
Development has a maximum building height that complies with:
(a) a neighbourhood plan; or
(b) if no neighbourhood plan applies or no requirements are specified in the neighbourhood plan, the requirements set out in Table 9.3.14.3.B.
AO6.2
Development in the 2 or 3 storey mix zone precinct of the Low–medium density residential zone where adjoining a lot containing a dwelling house (where no approval for development other than a dwelling house exists) has a building height within 10m of the common boundary that does not exceed 9.5m or 2 storeys.
PO7
If:
(a) identified in a neighbourhood plan as a building height transition; or
(b) in the High density residential zone or the Medium density residential zone and sharing a common boundary with, or located fronting a minor road that is opposite, premises in the Low–medium density residential zone, Low density residential zone or Character residential zone.
Development provides buildings that are reduced in bulk and form to provide a transitional built form of compatible scale which protects the amenity of lower density residential areas bordering medium and high density residential areas by:
(a) stepping down in height and scale;
(b) heavily landscaping interface area;
(c) minimising impacts including overlooking and visual dominance through building articulation;
(d) maintaining adequate levels of natural ventilation and light penetration to habitable rooms and private open space;
(e) avoiding large blank walls on steeply sloping sites.
AO7.1
If:
(a) identified in a neighbourhood plan as a building height transition; or
(b) in the High density residential zone or the Medium density residential zone and sharing a common boundary with, or located fronting a minor road that is opposite, premises in the Low–medium density residential zone, Low density residential zone or Character residential zone.
Development provides a building height transition which complies with:
(a) a neighbourhood plan; or
(b) if no neighbourhood plan applies or no requirements are specified in the neighbourhood plan:
(i) the building height within 10m of the common boundary is no more than 1 storey greater than the maximum acceptable outcome for building height on the adjoining site;
(ii) the building height within 20m of the common boundary is no more than 2 storeys greater than the maximum acceptable outcome for building height on the adjoining site;
(iii) all structures, except boundary fences, are set back a minimum of 4m from the common boundary;
(iv) the common boundary setback is a deep-planting area.
Refer to Figure f.
AO7.2
Development which fronts a minor road provides a building height transition that complies with:
(a) a neighbourhood plan; or
(b) if no neighbourhood plan applies or no requirements are specified in the neighbourhood plan:
(i) the building height within 10m of the front boundary is no more than 2 storeys greater than the maximum acceptable outcome for building height on a site located on the opposite side of the minor road;
(ii) all structures, except boundary fences, are set back a minimum of 4m from the front boundary;
(iii) the front boundary setback is a deep-planting area.
Refer to Figure f.
PO8
Development separates buildings from existing or future buildings within a site or on an adjoining site to:
(a) be consistent with the form and character intent for the local area;
(b) protect residential amenity including access to natural light, sunlight and breeze;
(c) provide visual privacy to reduce the need for fixed screening.
AO8.1
Development provides building placement and design that:
(a) complies with Table 9.3.14.3.F; or
(b) positions the primary balcony or private open space to face the street frontage or rear boundary or adjoining public open space;
(c) offsets balconies or habitable rooms so that they are positioned outside the cone of vision of existing or approved habitable rooms or outdoor spaces.
Refer to Figure g and Figure h.

Note—This is demonstrated by a site context plan that includes adjoining and adjacent buildings and strategies to address separation issues.

Note— Considered site planning and design and strategies such as offsetting balconies, the location of private space, selective screening or other design elements can reduce building separation requirements.

AO8.2
Development with a secondary private open space or balcony used for drying or services is located to the side boundary with fixed screens.
PO9
Development provides a front boundary setback that:
(a) defines the street edge;
(b) creates a clear threshold and transition from public to private space;
(c) assists in achieving visual privacy to ground-floor dwellings from the street;
(d) supports the location of balconies for casual surveillance of the street and modulation of the facade;
(e) contributes to the streetscape character and landscape;
(f) relates to the existing streetscape and setback pattern.
AO9.1
Development provides a front boundary setback that complies with:
(a) a neighbourhood plan; or
(b) if no neighbourhood plan applies or no requirements are specified in the neighbourhood plan, the requirements set out in Table 9.3.14.3.C.

Note—Roofing of terrace areas on car parking structures are to comply with boundary setback requirements for balconies.

Note—Boundary setbacks are also influenced by minimum building separations considering the nature of the wall proposed and the number of openings or balconies.

AO9.2
Development provides a front boundary setback from a secondary street frontage that is:
(a) for a building that is 3 storeys or less, a minimum of 3m to the balcony or patio line and 4m to the main building line;
(b) for a building that is 4 storeys up to 7 storeys, 4m to the balcony or patio line and 5m to the main building line;
(c) for a building 8 storeys or more, 5m to the balcony or patio line and 6m to the main building line.
PO10
Development provides a rear boundary setback that:
(a) supports the separation of buildings to provide visual and acoustic privacy without reliance on screening;
(b) maximises the opportunity to retain significant vegetation and protect or establish large subtropical shade trees in deep-planting areas.
AO10
Development provides a rear boundary setback that complies with:
(a) a neighbourhood plan; or
(b) if no neighbourhood plan applies or no requirements are specified in the neighbourhood plan, the requirements set out in Table 9.3.14.3.C.
PO11
Development provides a side boundary setback that:
(a) minimises the impact of development on the amenity and privacy of neighbouring existing residents;
(b) contributes to the rhythm and pattern of the streetscape in keeping with the intended neighbourhood character;
(c) provides for natural light, sunlight and breezes;
(d) considers future development.
AO11
Development provides a side boundary setback that complies with:
(a) a neighbourhood plan; or
(b) if no neighbourhood plan applies or no requirements are specified in the neighbourhood plan, the requirements set out in Table 9.3.14.3.C.
Refer to Figure d.
PO12
Development in the Low–medium density residential zone, Medium density residential zone or High density residential zone provides side boundary setbacks at ground- storey level that reflect a more intense form of development and may include built to boundary walls.
AO12
Development in the Low–medium density residential zone, Medium density residential zone or High density residential zone:
(a) may incorporate built to boundary walls located on both side boundaries;
(b) does not incorporate built to boundary walls where adjoining premises are located in the Low density residential zone or Character residential zone unless the owner of the adjoining premises does not object to a building being located less than 1.5m from their side boundary.

Note—Confirmation in writing from the adjoining owner of the adjoining premises is required.

PO13
Development that involves built to boundary walls does not impact on the amenity or privacy of adjoining residents.
AO13.1
Development ensures that built to boundary walls are:
(a) for non-habitable rooms or spaces only;
(b) not located within 1.5m of a habitable room in an adjoining dwelling house;
(c) not located within the front or rear boundary setback;
(d) where on the side boundaries of a corner lot, located towards the front of the development and separated;
(e) a maximum height of 3m;
(f) low maintenance or constructed of prefinished materials.
Refer to Figure e.
AO13.2
Development ensures a built to boundary wall has a maximum length of:
(a) 15m, where located in the Low–medium density residential zone, Medium density residential zone or High density residential zone; or
(b) 9m, where permitted in the Low density residential zone or the Infill housing zone precinct of the Character residential zone.
AO13.3
Development may incorporate a built to boundary wall which exceeds the maximum length stated in AO13.2 to match the extent of an abutting and lawfully constructed built to boundary wall on an adjoining premises.
PO14
Development ensures that the proportion of buildings to open space and landscaping on a site:
(a) is in keeping with the intended form and character intensity of the local area and immediate streetscape;
(b) contributes to modulation of the building form;
(c) supports residential amenity including access to natural light, sunlight and breeze;
(d) supports private outdoor subtropical living;
(e) provides for communal open space;
(f) provides for deep-planting areas to retain significant vegetation and protect or establish large subtropical shade trees.
AO14
Development has:
(a) a building footprint within the building envelope;
(b) a maximum site cover that:
(i) complies with the requirements set out in a neighbourhood plan; or
(ii) if no neighbourhood plan applies or no requirements are specified in the neighbourhood plan:
(A) where in the Medium density residential zone, Low–medium density residential zone, the Infill housing zone precinct of the Character residential zone or Low density residential zone, is 45%; or
(B) where in the High density residential zone, is 40%.
PO15
Development has a building depth and form that must be articulated to:
(a) ensure that the bulk of the development is in keeping with the form and character intent of the area;
(b) provide adequate amenity for building residents in terms of natural light and ventilation;
(c) provide opportunities for dual aspect dwellings.
Refer to Figure k.
AO15.1
Development where in the Medium density residential zone, Low-medium density residential zone, in the Infill housing zone precinct of the Character residential zone or Low density residential zone, the maximum length of a wall in any direction is 30m with substantial articulation provided every 15m.

Note—Substantial articulation is a full building separation of 6m or a change in building line of plus or minus 2m for a length not less than 5m.

AO15.2
Development where in the High density residential zone, the maximum length of a wall in any direction is 50m with substantial articulation provided every 15m.

Note—Substantial articulation is a full building separation of 6m or a change in building line of plus or minus 2m for a length not less than 5m.

PO16
Development of a building 8 storeys and over ensures that the design mitigates the impacts of ground-level wind acceleration on pedestrians and building occupants.
AO16
Development for a building which is from 8 storeys up to 15 storeys provides wind mitigation that uses at least 2 of the following strategies:
(a) building orientation, plan shape, massing and facade articulation to avoid tall and wide facades that face prevailing winds;
(b) a podium and tower building form with tower set back at least 10m from all streets above the podium level to deflect wind downdrafts from penetrating to street level (but the podium is not suitable for communal or private open space);
(c) canopies and awnings to protect pedestrians;
(d) trellis structures and a dense network of trees at ground or podium level.

Note—No acceptable outcome is prescribed for a development if more than 15 storeys in height.

Note—This is demonstrated by a wind impacts report submitted by a suitably qualified professional.

PO17
Development reduces the appearance of building bulk, ensures a human-scale, demonstrates variations in horizontal and vertical profile, balances the height of the building, and supports neighbourhood and street character.
AO17.1
Development has a number of the following design elements: balconies, verandahs, terraces or recesses;
(a) variation in the treatment and patterning of windows, sun shading devices or other facade features;
(b) variation in materials, colours, and textures and finishes, including between levels;
(c) recessions and projections in the roof and wall plane, such as steps, slopes or splays;
(d) variations in building form, including elements at a finer scale than the main structural framing.
Refer to Figure l, Figure m and Figure n.
AO17.2
Development of the first 3 storeys of the building include:
(a) balconies and outdoor living areas orientated to the street or public realm;
(b) expression of entries, different uses or elements of the building in plan and elevation;
(c) elements of a finer scale than the building's main structural framing that provide detail and modulate the elevation including awnings, sun shading, screening, variation in materials and finishes.
Refer to Figure l and Figure m.
PO18
Development meets a diverse range of community needs by providing adaptable housing that is responsive to changing community life-cycle needs.
AO18
Where development provides housing, including associated outdoor living areas intended to be adaptable to different persons and households with differing mobility needs, the dwelling units and other site features are constructed in accordance with Table 9.3.14.3.D.
PO19
Development for rooftops and building caps is:
(a) contextually and climatically appropriate in form;
(b) responsive to orientation and solar access;
(c) attractive and not marred by plant and equipment.
AO19.1
Development provides building caps and rooftops which:
(a) contribute to the architectural distinction of the building and roofs;
(b) include interesting forms created through pitches, gables, skillions or other features.
Refer to Figure o and Figure p.
AO19.2
Development for rooftop service structures, lift motor rooms and mechanical plant and equipment is:
(a) designed as an architectural feature of the building;
(b) incorporated into the roof form;
(c) designed to enable future inclusion of plant and equipment such as telecommunications facilities in an unobtrusive manner;
(d) visually and acoustically screened from any communal open space on the rooftop.
PO20
Development includes buildings that exhibit subtropical design elements to support Brisbane's subtropical design character and subtropical living.
AO20.1
Development has:
(a) dual aspect; or
(b) floor-to-ceiling heights greater than 2.4m; or
(c) habitable rooms with 2 windows or openings.
Refer to Figure q and Figure r.
AO20.2
Development includes buildings with weather protection and sun shading to all external doors and windows to habitable rooms.
AO20.3
Development incorporates deep recesses, eaves and sun-shading devices on the north-facing building facades.
AO20.4
Development of west-facing building facades are shaded using building and landscape elements such as adjustable screens, awnings or pergolas, green walls or planting.
PO21
Development where not in a zone in the centre zones category or the Mixed use zone, provides car parking that minimises impacts on the quality of adjoining streetscapes or public spaces and the amenity of adjoining residents in terms of location, bulk, form and amenity impacts including noise, odour or light having regard to:
(a) the proximity of dwelling houses or existing multiple dwellings on adjoining sites;
(b) the scale and detail of any parking structure walls when viewed from the street and adjoining properties;
(c) setback distances to mitigate impacts;
(d) the location of actual frontages and public spaces.

Note—Where in a zone in the centre zones category or the Mixed use zone, the car parking provisions of the Centre or mixed use code apply.

AO21.1
Development where not in a zone in the centre zones category or the Mixed use zone, provides car parking that is:
(a) located below ground;
(b) located at ground level or above ground only if:
(i) screened from view from the street, other public spaces or adjoining properties;
(ii) contained within the development footprint and located behind the main building line, except where visitor parking.
(c) set back from front, rear and side boundaries in accordance with a neighbourhood plan or if no neighbourhood plan applies or no requirements are specified in a neighbourhood plan, Table 9.3.14.3.E;
(d) screened and landscaped.

Note—Car parking which extends 1m above ground level will be counted as a storey in the maximum height and will be subject to the relevant boundary setback requirements.

Note—Visitor car parking may be located within the front setback only on one side of an entrance driveway and for the depth of one standard car and where a 1m wide landscaping strip separates the parking space from the street frontage boundary.

AO21.2
Development, where not in a zone in the centre zones category or the Mixed use zone, of a basement car parking structure located between the street frontage and the main building line is no more than 1m above ground level at any point.
AO21.3
Development, where not in a zone in the centre zones category or the Mixed use zone, for a basement car parking structure located on the side or rear boundary where up to 1m above ground or where retaining walls and fencing are proposed:
(a) the maximum combined height is 2m;
(b) structures and fences are finished with low-maintenance and pre-finished materials.

Note—Structures include car parking walls, retaining walls, fences, planters and roofing to terraces, balconies or patios.

PO22
Development where not in a zone in the centre zones category or the Mixed use zone, provides vehicle access and parking that must be safe and convenient for residents, visitors and service providers.

Note—where in a zone in the centre zones category or the Mixed use zone, the car parking provisions of the Centre or mixed use code apply.

AO22.1
Development where not in a zone in the centre zones category or the Mixed use zone, provides vehicle access, parking, loading/unloading facilities and associated vehicle manoeuvring areas on site that are designed and provided for in accordance with the Transport, access, parking and servicing code.
AO22.2
Development where not in a zone in the centre zones category or the Mixed use zone, ensures that the location of visitor parking is:
(a) discernible from the street;
(b) clearly signposted;
(c) not located behind a security barrier;
(d) not located on both sides of the driveway;
(e) is separated by a 1m wide landscaping strip from the street frontage boundary.

Note—Locating visitor parking on one side of the driveway and deep planting on the other is a solution for accommodating both features at the front of the site.

AO22.3
Development, where not in a zone in the centre zones category or the Mixed use zone, for a small-scale multiple dwelling, such as an attached or townhouse dwelling, provides a tandem car parking space, that is designed in accordance with Figure s.
PO23
Development where not in a zone in the centre zones category or the Mixed use zone, provides vehicle access and parking that must not impact on the amenity and privacy of residents within or adjoining the site.

Note—Where in a zone in the centre zones category or the Mixed use zone, the car parking provisions of the Centre or mixed use code apply.

AO23.1
Development where not in a zone in the centre zones category or the Mixed use zone, ensures that a hardstand or manoeuvring area situated at ground level is:
(a) located to minimise noise disturbance;
(b) screened to:
(i) minimise the reflection of car headlights onto dwelling windows;
(ii) attenuate noise;
(c) separated from habitable windows to minimise noise and fumes disturbance;
(d) landscaped to soften the visual appearance of hardstand areas.
AO23.2
Development where not in a zone in the centre zones category or the Mixed use zone:
(a) ensures any vehicle movement or vehicle parking areas along the side or rear boundary are acoustically screened from adjoining dwellings; or
(b) provides a vegetated buffer next to any movement or parking areas of 1m wide along the side boundary and 2m wide along the rear boundary.
PO24
Development where not in a zone in the centre zones category or the Mixed use zone, ensures that open uncovered car parking areas and the setback to ground level car parking is landscaped to provide:
(a) shade for pedestrians;
(b) legibility and enhance pedestrian safety;
(c) improved urban landscape amenity;
(d) a reduction in the impact of glare and radiant heat from car-parking areas and vehicle access on neighbouring dwellings and streetscape.

Note—Where in a zone in the centre zones category or the Mixed use zone, the car parking provisions of the Centre or mixed use code apply.

AO24.1
Development of ground level or other above ground car parking, where not in a zone in the centre zones category or the Mixed use zone, provides densely planted setbacks.

Note—Front boundary setbacks must be treated to address streetscape interface issues and be in accordance with streetscape interface performance outcomes and acceptable outcomes.

AO24.2
Development, where not in a zone in the centre zones category or the Mixed use zone, and where car parking is above ground and uncovered, provides:
(a) a minimum of 1 shade tree for every 6 car spaces;
(b) trees which are planted to achieve a minimum 50% shade cover along internal pedestrian paths within 5 years of certification in accordance with the Landscape work code and the Planting species planning scheme policy.
AO24.3
Development where not in a zone in the centre zones category or the Mixed use zone, provides:
(a) landscaping that is used to delineate safe pedestrian movement through car parks;
(b) exterior vehicle movement areas that are broken up by alternative materials, patterns or threshold treatments.
PO25
Development ensures significant vegetation and large subtropical shade trees are protected or established to balance the bulk, scale and form of the building and provide a subtropical landscape setting.

Note—Guidance about retention of existing trees is provided by the Vegetation planning scheme policy.

AO25.1
Development ensures that the location of a new building, car parking, driveway or a crossover will not adversely impact the long-term viability of trees to be retained.

Note—Invasive species identified in the Planting species planning scheme policy are not required to be retained unless the tree is a significant, mature and healthy shade tree.

Note—Guidance about retention of existing trees is provided by the Vegetation planning scheme policy.

AO25.2
Development provides or retains one tree within the site per 20m of frontage that is capable of growing to a minimum height of 15m at maturity.

Note—Landscape design incorporates planting in accordance with the Planting species planning scheme policy.

Note—Guidance about retention of existing trees is provided by the Vegetation planning scheme policy.

AO25.3
Development provides tree species that are selected and planted to provide a minimum 50% shade cover to a site’s open space within 10 years.

Note—Shade cover is to be measured at 12pm on 21 December.

PO26
Development provides landscaping that must:
(a) provide shade to pedestrian pathways;
(b) support overlooking of the street and public spaces from the site and balconies;
(c) present an integrated landscape, neighbourhood and streetscape character;
(d) contribute positively to amenity and the subtropical microclimate of the site, streetscape and public spaces;
(e) maintain sightlines and support personal safety.

Note—This is demonstrated by an overall site landscape concept plan.

Note—Guidance about retention of existing trees is provided by the Vegetation planning scheme policy.

AO26.1
Development provides landscaping within the site along the frontage of the site that consists of:
(a) a minimum of 1 area of deep planting;
(b) shade and/or rounded canopy trees located to cast a minimum of 50% shade over the adjacent verge within 5 years of planting;
(c) a minimum of 50% of frontage length planted for a minimum width of 2m, and excluding the driveway crossover and pedestrian access.

Note—Guidance about retention of existing trees is provided by the Vegetation planning scheme policy.

AO26.2
Development provides landscaping as follows:
(a) a minimum of 1.5m wide landscaping for a side boundary excluding the area for built to boundary walls;
(b) a minimum of 1m wide landscaping for a side boundary where a driveway, or at ground level open parking area, is located adjacent to the boundary.
PO27
Development provides communal space that must be designed to provide:
(a) residents with passive and active recreation opportunities;
(b) a pleasant outlook for residents and maximise opportunities for shared views or access to viewing points;
(c) opportunity for a range of uses and flexible use.
AO27.1
Development provides a minimum of 5% or 40m2 of the site area for communal open space, whichever is greater.
AO27.2
Development provides communal space that:
(a) is consolidated into one useable space; or
(b) where the communal space exceeds 100m2, 2 separate useable areas within the site.

Note—For example, one space may be provided on ground as a swimming pool and barbeque area with substantial landscaping, and another on the roof to take advantage of views.

Note—Guidance about retention of existing trees is provided by the Vegetation planning scheme policy.

AO27.3
Development provides communal open space:
(a) on ground; or
(b) in a structure over a platform or basement or on a rooftop, provided these areas can accommodate 25% landscaping.
AO27.4
Development provides a maximum of 25% of the required communal space as internal space.

Note—Internal spaces may include a gymnasium, movie room or entertainment room.

AO27.5
Development provides communal outdoor space that is:
(a) a minimum 50% open to the sky;
(b) a minimum 25% shaded by trees within 5 years.
AO27.6
Development ensures that communal outdoor space areas do not contain:
(a) vehicle driveways, manoeuvring or hardstand areas; or
(b) surface structures and infrastructure such as rainwater tanks, transformers and water boosters.

Note—Bioretention areas can form part of communal open space provided it is designed as a component of the landscape area but not any area of deep planting. Lightweight shade structures such as pergolas are able to be located within communal open space.

AO27.7
Development provides communal outdoor space that incorporates a balanced combination of soft and hard landscape features and includes a minimum of 25% landscaping in the total area.

Note—Landscaping where in a structure can be provided as planter beds, turf etc.

AO27.8
Development provides communal open space that is designed to provide a range of recreational facilities, such as:
(a) seating;
(b) barbeque;
(c) play equipment or gymnasium;
(d) swimming pool;
(e) communal clothes drying; or
(f) vegetable garden.

Note—Communal clothes drying is required whether or not individual facilities are provided in private open space areas.

AO27.9
Development that involves 5 dwellings or fewer on one lot can allocate additional private open space to a dwelling at ground storey instead of to communal open space.
PO28
Development must provide attractive and functional private open space for residents.

Note—Private open space can be provided on ground, on balconies or in a structure over a platform, basement and on rooftops.

AO28.1
Development provides private open space which comprises:
(a) for ground-storey dwellings, a minimum area of 35m2 with a minimum dimension of 3m;
(b) for dwellings above ground storey, a balcony with a minimum area of 12m2 and a minimum dimension of 3m.

Note—The measurement of private open space must be clear of utilities such as hot water systems, air-conditioning units, rainwater tanks, bicycle parking or other utilities.

AO28.2
Development provides for private open space areas that are:
(a) directly accessible from the internal primary living areas of the dwelling;
(b) provided with a screened area of 2m2 minimum dimension capable of screening air-conditioning plant, private clothes drying etc.;
(c) provided with adjustable, moveable or operable privacy screening where appropriate;
(d) a minimum 1m dimension where at ground level or within 1m vertical distance of ground level.
AO28.3
Development provides balconies that are located to the front or rear of a building except where adequate building separation can be achieved to maintain privacy.
AO28.4
Development where secondary balconies are provided to a side of a building for additional amenity or services, such as clothes drying or to articulate facades, the setback may be reduced to the minimum setback but these do not form part of the private open space requirement.
AO28.5
Development ensures that private open space areas do not contain:
(a) vehicle driveways, manoeuvring or hardstand areas; or
(b) surface structures and infrastructure such as rainwater tanks, transformers and water boosters.

Note—Water conservation services or utilities or stormwater treatment measures, such as bioretention areas, can form part of private open space provided they are designed as a component of the landscape area but not any area of deep planting. Lightweight shade structures, such as pergolas, are able to be located within at-grade and in-structure private open space.

PO29
Development provides a resident with functional outdoor living space that receives natural light but is shaded to protect from the resident from direct sunlight.
AO29
Development provides a minimum of 75% of a dwelling’s outdoor living area positioned to the north or north-east.
This is balanced with street interface desired outcomes.

Note—Side boundary facing north or north-east facing windows or balconies may be permitted where this will significantly improve passive solar design, provided privacy for occupants and adjacent dwellings is maintained.

PO30
Development provides deep planting that:
(a) is open to the sky with access to light and rainfall and into the natural ground with no underground development or infrastructure;
(b) contains subtropical tree species that at maturity are complementary in scale and height to the building form or respond to the site location and design needs;
(c) softens the impact of building and hardstand areas and reduces impervious areas to improve stormwater;
(d) provides shade and informal recreation spaces that are easily accessible for building occupants;
(e) is located to retain existing site features such as significant vegetation or grouped with deep-planted areas on adjacent sites to maximise contiguous areas of deep planting.
AO30.1
Development locates deep-planting areas:
(a) to protect significant vegetation;
(b) to protect or establish large subtropical shade trees;
(c) to provide an opportunity for the co-location of deep soil plants and large subtropical shade trees within the street or on adjoining premises;
(d) within the front or rear set back in the Medium density residential zone and High density residential zone.
AO30.2
Development provides deep-planting areas that are:
(a) a minimum of 10% of the site area;
(b) exclusively for landscaping;
(c) able to accommodate trees planted in natural ground;
(d) 100% open to the sky;
(e) can be accessed for maintenance purposes.
AO30.3
Development provides trees in deep-planting areas which:
(a) are capable of growing to a minimum canopy diameter of 5m and a minimum height of 5m within 5 years of planting;
(b) are subtropical tree species consistent with the Planting species planning scheme policy.

Note—Tree species should be chosen to respond to particular site location or design needs. Where site circumstances permit, tree species that are complementary in scale and height to the building form should be selected. Tree height and canopy spread will be dependent on species.

AO30.4
Development ensures that deep-planting areas do not contain:
(a) vehicle driveways, manoeuvring or hardstand areas and pedestrian paths;
(b) surface structures and infrastructure such as water conservation services or utilities
(c) sub-surface structures or infrastructure such as piping, bioretention pits, basement car parking structures.

Note—Water conservation services or utilities and stormwater treatment measures are devices such as tanks and bioretention areas. These devices limit the space available for tree planting within deep-planting areas.

PO31
Development provides a building that must define the street edge and reinforce the desired character of the neighbourhood through:
(a) orientation to the street;
(b) front boundary setback;
(c) balconies and windows to provide overlooking and casual surveillance;
(d) building entrances;
(e) the treatment of retaining walls or basement car parking edges.
Refer to Figure t and Figure w.
AO31.1
Development provides a building front elevation that is parallel or nearly parallel to the street frontage.
AO31.2
Development provides a building that is not set back further than 2m beyond the minimum required street front setback.
AO31.3
Development provides balconies and windows from the primary living area that face and overlook the street or public space.
PO32
Development provides an entrance that must define the threshold between public and private space and provide:
(a) safe, secure and convenient access to the site for residents and visitors;
(b) a sufficiently scaled and sheltered entry and meeting space;
(c) clear building signage and numbering for emergency access;
(d) lighting;
(e) conveniently located mailboxes;
(f) Individual entrances to ground storey dwellings provide for a varied streetscape.
AO32.1
Development of a small-scale multiple dwelling of 5 or fewer dwellings in attached form, such as townhouses, ensures access to the front door of each dwelling is at the ground storey and clearly identifiable and visible from the public street or internal driveway.
AO32.2
Development where not a small-scale multiple dwelling of 5 or less dwellings, provides a pedestrian entry that is separated from vehicle entry and access to a building or dwelling is not via a driveway.
AO32.3
Development where not a small-scale multiple dwelling of 5 or less dwellings, provides at least one prominent pedestrian entry that connects a foyer or building entry directly with the public verge and includes:
(a) entry and waiting space off the footpath;
(b) shelter;
(c) lighting in accordance with Category P3 of the AS/NZS 1158.3.1:2005 Lighting for roads and public spaces and complying with Table 2.1 - Illuminance in the vertical plane of AS 4282-1997 Control of the obtrusive effects of outdoor lighting;
(d) mailboxes.
Refer to Figure u.
AO32.4
Development provides direct entry from the street for ground storey dwellings adjacent to the street front and:
(a) any steps are set back a minimum of 1m from the front boundary and perpendicular to the boundary;
(b) retaining walls step to the street level and provide a transition from private outdoor space and the street level;
(c) a minimum of 0.8m landscaping is located between the front boundary and private open space to provide a soft edge at the pedestrian scale to the street;
(d) lighting is provided in accordance with Category P3 of the AS/NZS 1158.3.1:2005 Lighting for roads and public spaces and complying with Table 2.1 - Illuminance in the vertical plane of AS 4282-1997 Control of the obtrusive effects of outdoor lighting;
(e) street numbering is provided to support visitor and emergency access.
Refer to Figure v.
PO33
Development provides car parking areas, vehicle site access, services and utilities that do not adversely impact on a positive streetscape character and interface being established.
AO33.1
Development ensures that vehicle access comprises no more than 30% of the street frontage width at the front boundary and is located away from the main pedestrian entry.

Note—This excludes driveway splays to the kerb.

AO33.2
Development provides site access, combined with short-term parking, drop-off zones or porte-cocheres, that does not dominate the street frontage or comprise more than 40% of the street frontage.
AO33.3
Development where above-ground or partially above-ground car parking is located so that:
(a) the facade design and materials selection is extended to the car park entry and car park areas on all frontages and boundaries;
(b) building services, pipes and ducts within the car park are not visible from the street and other public spaces or adjoining properties and are screened and landscaped.
Refer to Figure x.
PO34
Development provides front fencing and retaining walls that must:
(a) facilitate casual surveillance of the street and public space;
(b) enable use of private open space;
(c) assist in highlighting entrances to the property;
(d) provide a positive interface to the streetscape.
AO34.1
Development ensures that, where fencing is provided, the height of any new fence located on any common boundary to a street or public space is a maximum of:
(a) 1.2m, where fence construction is solid or less than 50% transparent;
(b) 1.5m, where fence construction is at least 50% transparent;
(c) 1.8m and solid only where the site is on an arterial road.
AO34.2
Development incorporating solid front fences or walls that front the street or other public spaces 1.2m or more high and longer than 10m, indentations, material variation or landscaping is provided to add visual interest and soften the visual impact.
AO34.3
Development for a retaining wall is:
(a) stepped to minimise impact on the streetscape and pedestrian environment;
(b) a maximum of 0.6m in height if directly abutting the edge of the adjoining road reserve verge.
PO35
Development must minimise direct overlooking between buildings through appropriate building layout, location and the design of windows and balconies or screening devices.

Note—Siting and building separation is used to minimise privacy screening requirements.

AO35.1
Development where the dwelling is located within 2m at ground storey or 9m above ground storey of a habitable room window or private open space of an existing dwelling house, ensures habitable rooms and any private outdoor spaces have:
(a) an offset from the habitable room or private open space of the existing dwelling to limit direct outlook; or
(b) sill heights a minimum of 1.5m above floor level; or
(c) fixed obscure glazing in any part of the window below 1.5m above floor level; or
(d) fixed external screens; or
(e) in the case of screening for a ground floor level, fencing to a minimum 1.8m above the ground storey floor level.
Refer to Figure h.
AO35.2
Development where a direct view is available from balconies, terraces, decks or roof decks into windows of habitable rooms, balconies, terraces or decks in an adjacent existing dwelling house, is screened from floor level to a height above 1.5m above floor level.
AO35.3
Development provides screening devices that are solid translucent screens, perforated or slatted panels or fixed louvres that have a maximum of 25% openings, with a maximum opening dimension of 50mm, and that are permanently fixed and durable.

Note—The screening device is offset a minimum of 0.3m from the wall around any window.

Note—Screening devices may be hinged or otherwise attached to facilitate emergency egress.

PO36
Development provides screening and partial enclosure of balconies to:
(a) balance the privacy needs of neighbouring dwellings with the comfort of building occupants;
(b) ensure buildings are subtropical and climatically responsive;
(c) reduce the appearance of excessive bulk;
(d) provide opportunities for passive surveillance of the street or public spaces.

Note—Balconies use a combination of solid balustrades, operable screens and lightweight materials to provide a balance of privacy and engagement with the street and other public spaces.

AO36.1
Development where providing balconies with solid balustrades on the street frontage or visible from public space, limits solid balustrading to a maximum of:
(a) 50% of the balconies on the first 3 storeys;
(b) 25% on the 4th storey and above.
Refer to Figure y.
AO36.2
Development where providing solid walls or fixed screening to balconies limits the walls and screening to:
(a) the side directly adjoining another balcony or private open space within the same building;
(b) a maximum of 20% or 1.0m of 1 external face, whichever is lesser, to screen utilities or private clothes lines;
(c) the full extent of a secondary balcony on a side elevation where for utilities or services.

Note—This excludes solid balustrades or screening where provided to reduce amenity or privacy impacts to nearby dwellings.

AO36.3
Development where providing operable, moveable or adjustable screening of balconies, limits the screening to a maximum of:
(a) 60% of the front side or rear boundary balconies to achieve visual privacy to an existing dwelling within 9m;
(b) 100% of west-facing primary balconies.
Refer to Figure y.
PO37
Development provides fencing to adjoining properties that protects privacy and amenity for each dwelling.
AO37
Development provides side and rear boundary fencing that is:
(a) a minimum of 1.8m in height;
(b) a maximum of 1.2m in height where fence construction is solid or less than 50% transparent, or 1.5m where fence construction is a least 50% transparent, forward of the main building line to the front boundary except where it has a noise mitigation function.
PO38
Development minimises light nuisance
AO38
Development of outdoor lighting is in compliance with AS 4282-1997 Control of the obtrusive effects of outdoor lighting

Note—This includes outdoor lighting to communal open spaces on the roof.

PO39
Development for a building must not incorporate any type of glass or other surface likely to reflect specular rays that could create undue nuisance, discomfort or hazard to the surrounding locality.
AO39
Development provides reflective glass material that has:
(a) a level of light reflectivity of not greater than 20%;
(b) a level of heat transmission of not less than 20%.
PO40
Development in a zone in the centre zones category or the Mixed use zone is located, designed and constructed to achieve the:
(a) air quality (planning) criteria in Table 9.3.14.3.G;
(b) odour criteria in Table 9.3.14.3.H.

Note—An air quality impact report prepared in accordance with the Air quality planning scheme policy can assist in demonstrating achievement of this performance outcome.

AO40
Development in a zone in the centre zones category or the Mixed use zone, including any outdoor air intakes for the development, is separated from:
(a) exhaust vent outlets of premises where food or cooking odour is released, by a minimum of 6m;
(b) exhaust vent outlets from car parks or bus stations, by a minimum of 15m.
PO41
Development in a zone in the centre zones category or the Mixed use zone must:
(a) be located, designed and constructed to protect bedrooms and other habitable rooms from exposure to noise arising from non-residential activities outside the building;
(b) be designed and constructed to achieve a minimum reduction in sound pressure level between the exterior of the building and the bedrooms or indoor primary living areas of 30dBA.

Note—A noise impact assessment report prepared in accordance with the Noise impact assessment planning scheme policy can assist in demonstrating achievement of this performance outcome.

Note—Site-specific criteria will be identified in a neighbourhood plan for sites within a Special Entertainment Precinct Area or within the Transport noise corridor overlay.

AO41
Development in a zone in the centre zones category or the Mixed use zone has a minimum acoustic performance of:
(a) Rw 35 for glazing (windows and doors) where total area of glazing is greater than 1.8m2;
(b) Rw 32 for glazing (windows and doors) where total area of glazing is less than or equal to 1.8m2.
PO42
Development that includes mechanical plant (including air-conditioning plant, heat pumps and swimming pool pumps) ensures it is located, designed and attenuated to achieve the following criteria:
  • LAeq,adj,T emitted from mechanical plant is not greater than the rating background level plus 3 at a sensitive use not associated with the development.
Note—
Where T is
  • Day (7am to 6pm): 11hr,
  • Evening (6pm to 10pm): 4hr,
  • Night (10pm to 7am): 9hr.
Where-

Note—A noise impact assessment report prepared in accordance with the Noise impact assessment planning scheme policy can assist in demonstrating achievement of this performance outcome.

AO42
Development ensures mechanical plant is acoustically screened from nearby sensitive uses.
PO43
Development provides refuse and recycling collection and storage facilities that:
(a) are located conveniently in an unobtrusive dedicated storage room or separate screened structure;
(b) are located and managed so that adverse impacts on building occupants, neighbouring properties and the public realm are minimised;
(c) provide for refuse and recycling including source separation;
(d) are of a design that allows low-frequency service collection;
(e) minimise ongoing building management cost for occupants.
AO43.1
Development provides refuse and recycling collection and storage facilities in accordance with the Refuse planning scheme policy.
AO43.2
Development ensures that refuse and recycling collection and storage location and design, does not have any adverse impact including odour, noise or visual impacts on the amenity of residents within or adjoining the development.
Note—Refer to the Refuse planning scheme policy for further guidance.
PO44
Development does not adversely impact the structural integrity or ongoing operation and maintenance of sub-surface transport infrastructure that is an existing or endorsed proposed tunnel.
AO44
Development demonstrates that it will not result in any impact on existing or planned sub-surface transport infrastructure through the submission of engineering and geological reports and certification or consent provided by the relevant infrastructure owner.
PO45
Development must create a safe environment by incorporating the key elements of crime prevention through environmental design.
AO45
Development incorporates the key elements of crime prevention through environmental design in its layout, building or structure design and landscaping by:
(a) facilitating casual surveillance opportunities and including good sightlines to publicly accessible areas such as car parks, pathways, public toilets, and communal areas;
(b) defining different uses and ownerships through design and restricting access from non-residential uses into private residential dwellings;
(c) promoting safety and minimising opportunities for graffiti and vandalism through exterior building design and orientation of buildings and use of active frontages;
(d) ensuring publicly accessible areas such as car parks, pathways, public toilets, and communal areas are well lit;
(e) including way-finding cues;
(f) minimising predicable routes and entrapment locations near public spaces such as car parks, public toilets, ATMs, communal areas.

Note—For guidance in achieving the key elements of crime prevention through environmental design, refer to the Crime prevention through environmental design planning scheme policy.

PO46
Development minimises the potential for graffiti and vandalism through access control, canvas reduction and easy maintenance selection.
AO46
Development incorporates graffiti and vandalism prevention techniques in its layout, building or structure design and landscaping, by:
(a) denying access to potential canvas through access control techniques;
(b) reducing potential canvases through canvas reduction techniques;
(c) ensuring graffiti can be readily and quickly removed through easy maintenance selection techniques.

Note—For guidance on graffiti and vandalism prevention techniques refer to the Graffiti prevention planning scheme policy.

If identified in a neighbourhood plan
PO47
Development on a landmark site provides a prominent visual reference and contribution to the city’s public realm by:
(a) exhibiting subtropical architectural excellence through design, treatment and articulation;
(b) defining the site and its setting through building form, expression, silhouette, scale, materials and landscaping;
(c) reinforcing a sense of arrival to the neighbourhood plan area, precinct or sub-precinct through marking a node, an intersection or major connection point in the city;
(d) respecting the prominence of any adjoining or nearby heritage place or local landmark;
(e) corner land dedication, if required:
(i) accommodates a deep-planted large feature tree within the dedication area;
(ii) provides a building envelope that acknowledges and integrates the presence of the large feature tree canopy;
(iii) accommodates high levels of pedestrian movement and a high quality pedestrian setting.

Note—A neighbourhood plan may indicate whether or not a land dedication is required.

AO47.1
Development:
(a) emphasises a landmark site identified in a neighbourhood plan and its setting;
(b) addresses all elevations, with front, side and rear facades all displaying a high level of modulation and articulation;
(c) both vertically and horizontally articulates building form and mass with proportions compatible with the height, scale and setting of the building;
(d) provides an interesting and varied skyline and silhouette;
(e) uses high-quality and durable materials and finishes;
(f) integrates landscaping, building entries and the public realm at the ground plane.

Note—The Council’s Independent Design Advisory Panel may be invited to provide advice on developments in accordance with the provisions of the Independent design advisory panel planning scheme policy.

AO47.2
Development provides a corner land dedication adjacent to the existing verge area which:
(a) is configured and provided in the form identified in Figure i or Figure j;
(b) complies with any dimensions identified in a neighbourhood plan;
(c) accommodates a deep-planted feature tree in compliance with the Infrastructure design planning scheme policy;
(d) is embellished in compliance with the Infrastructure design planning scheme policy.

Note—A neighbourhood plan may indicate if a corner land dedication is to be truncated or inverted. If the configuration is not specified, a truncated land dedication is to be provided where the building or podium is 2 or less storeys height. Where an inverted corner land dedication is provided, the building design accommodates the feature tree canopy at maturity.

PO48
Development minimises visual impacts on a view corridor of local significance and enhances opportunities for observation of key vistas and views from identified view points.
AO48.1
Development ensures building placement and design minimise visual impacts on a view corridor identified in a neighbourhood plan.

Note—A neighbourhood plan may identify view corridors and may or may not identify any specific view points from which they are observed.

AO48.2
Development enhances opportunities for views and vistas from a view point identified in a neighbourhood plan.

Note—A neighbourhood plan may identify view points and may or may not identify any specific view corridor that they observe.

PO49
Development on a significant corner site provides a prominent visual reference and contribution to the neighbourhood’s public realm by:
(a) accommodating high levels of pedestrian movement at the corner and enhancing the pedestrian experience;
(b) emphasising the corner setting through building form, expression, silhouette, scale, materials and landscaping;
(c) reinforcing a sense of arrival to the neighbourhood plan area, precinct or sub-precinct through marking a node, intersection or connection point in the neighbourhood;
(d) respecting the prominence of any adjoining or nearby heritage places, traditional character buildings or local landmarks;
(e) if a corner land dedication is required:
(i) accommodating a deep-planted feature tree within the dedication area;
(ii) providing a building envelope that acknowledges and respects the presence of the feature tree canopy.

Note—A neighbourhood plan will indicate whether or not a land dedication is required.

AO49.1
Development is designed to emphasise the corner setting of a significant corner site identified in a neighbourhood plan and provides:
(a) building entries on both street frontages; or
(b) a single main entry at the corner.
AO49.2
Development provides a significant corner land dedication of a significant corner site identified in a neighbourhood plan, adjacent to the existing verge of the building which:
(a) is configured and provided in the form identified in Figure i or Figure j and dimensions identified in a neighbourhood plan;
(b) accommodates a deep-planted feature tree in compliance with the road corridor design section of the Infrastructure design planning scheme policy;
(c) is embellished in compliance with the road corridor design section of the Infrastructure design planning scheme policy.

Note—A neighbourhood plan may indicate if a corner land dedication is to be truncated or inverted. If the configuration is not specified, a truncated land dedication is to be provided where the building or podium is 2 or fewer storeys in height. Where an inverted corner land dedication is provided, the building design accommodates the feature tree canopy at maturity.

AO49.3
Development ensures that any part of the building, including the basement but excluding awnings, is outside the corner land dedication area.

Note—A neighbourhood plan may indicate if a building is able to volumetrically extend into the corner land dedication area.

If in the Low density residential zone
PO50
Development is located on a site that:
(a) has a sufficient area to achieve an integrated development outcome with built form transitions to the character of the adjoining neighbouring dwelling houses or low density area;
(b) is conveniently located near shops, public transport services and other community facilities;
(c) has sufficient infrastructure capacity.
AO50
Development is located:
(a) on a site with a minimum site area of 3,000m2;
(b) within 400m walking distance of a public transport stop with 20-minute frequency peak-hour services;
(c) within 800m walking distance of an existing neighbourhood, district, major or principal centre;
(d) that is not gated;
(e) with sufficient infrastructure capacity.
PO51
Development in the Low density residential zone supports neighbourhood structure, and a lower intensity residential character and integrates with adjoining sites through:
(a) a mix of dwelling types and building forms such as freestanding dwelling houses and townhouses;
(b) dwelling houses addressing existing streets;
(c) the proportion of dwelling houses increasing for larger sites;
(d) connection to the existing or proposed local street and park network;
(e) legible and direct pedestrian and cyclist access to surrounding and future community facilities in the area such as schools, parks, neighbourhood shops and public transport;
(f) appropriate development interfaces to side boundaries and adjacent sites;
(g) new public roads and parks as appropriate to the scale of the site.
Refer to Figure a.
AO51.1
Development is not vertically stacked in an apartment form but is attached or freestanding and visually recognisable as such, by variation in the dwelling size, materials, textures, colours and built form features.
AO51.2
Development in the form of a free-standing dwelling house is located on an existing street frontage and provides a transition to adjoining dwelling houses.
AO51.3
Development provides connections to existing road, park and pathway networks.
AO51.4
Development is within 60m of a public road.
AO51.5
Development applies rear boundary setback requirements to side boundaries.
AO51.6
Development on sites of 7,000m2 or greater:
(a) includes public roads, spaces or footpath connections in accordance with a neighbourhood plan;
(b) is not gated.
If in the Low density residential zone or the Infill housing zone precinct of the Character residential zone
PO52
Development in the Low density residential zone or the Infill housing zone precinct of the Character residential zone respects the intensity and form of the neighbourhood and demonstrates an appropriate site density.
AO52.1
Development in the Low density residential zone does not exceed 1 dwelling per 200m2 of site area.
AO52.2
Development in the Infill housing zone precinct of the Character residential zone does not exceed 1 dwelling per 300m2 of site area.
PO53
Development provides a side boundary setback that reflects the character and form intent of the area, generally characterised by the separation of buildings.
AO53
Development in the Low density residential zone or Character residential zone:
(a) does not incorporate a built to boundary wall; or
(b) matching the extent of an existing built to boundary wall on the adjoining property; or
(c) incorporates a maximum of 1 built to the boundary wall on a side boundary where the owner of the adjoining premises does not object.

Editor's note—Confirmation in writing in the form of a statutory declaration from the registered owner of the adjoining premises is required to be submitted to demonstrate compliance.

Table 9.3.14.3.B—Site requirements and building height for a multiple dwelling, retirement facility or short-term accommodation
Zone
Zone precinct
Maximum
building height
Minimum site requirements
Site area (m2)
Frontage width (m)
Low density residential
2 storeys
and 9.5m
3,000
40
Character residential
Infill
Housing
2 storeys
and 9.5m
800
20
Low–medium density residential
2 storey mix
2 storeys
and 9.5m
600
15
2 or 3 storey mix where:
(a) the site has frontage to a road with a reserve width of 15.5m or more;
(b) a dedicated pedestrian access point of the site is within 400m walking distance of a dedicated public pedestrian access point of a railway or busway station.

Note—Development in the 2 or 3 storey mix zone precinct of the Low–medium density residential zone where adjoining a lot containing a dwelling house (where no approval for development other than a dwelling house exists) has a building height within 10m of the common boundary that does not exceed 9.5m and does not exceed 2 storeys.

3 storeys
and 11.5m
600
15
2 or 3 storey mix - in all other circumstances
2 storeys and 9.5m
600
15
Up to 3 storeys
3 storeys
and 11.5m
600
15
Medium density residential
Up to 5 storeys
5 storeys
800
20
High density residential
Up to 8 storeys
8 storeys
800
20
Up to 15 storeys
15 storeys
800
20

Note—Car parking areas more than 1m above ground level are considered a storey and included in the calculation of height.

Note—Walking distance can be demonstrated on a site context plan.

Editor’s note—Section 1.7.7 applies where the maximum building height is specified in storeys and the development includes a space that is situated between one floor level and the floor level next above, or if there is no floor above, the ceiling or roof above, that contains only a bathroom, shower room, laundry, water closet or other sanitary compartment.

Table 9.3.14.3.C—Boundary setbacks for a multiple dwelling
Height of proposed wall
Minimum boundary setback (m) (other than built to boundary walls)
Front
Rear
Side
To balcony
To wall
To balcony
To wall
1 storey
and up to 4.5m
4
6
4.5
6
0.0m built to boundary where permitted (refer to PO12, PO13 and PO14)
1.5m in all other circumstances
2 storeys
and up to 9.5m
4
6
4.5
6
1.5m up to 4.5m building height
2.0m up to 7.5m building height then 2.0m plus 0.5m/3m above 7.5m building height
2 storeys and up to 9.5m and where located on a lot with a street frontage 15m or less
4
6
4.5
6
1.5m up to 7.5m building height then
1.5m plus 0.5m/3m above 7.5m building height
3 storeys and
up to 11.5m
4
6
6
1.5m up to 4.5m building height
2.0m up to 7.5m building height
then 2.0m plus 0.5m/3m above 7.5m building height
Up to 5 storeys
4
6
6
An average of 4m with
5m to balconies or habitable rooms
3m to non-habitable rooms or blank walls
Up to 8 storeys
6
8
9
6
Up to 15 storeys
6
8
12
6

Note—Boundary setbacks to balconies are measured to the edge of the balcony or balustrading, whichever is closer to the boundary.

Note—For a site with 2 or more street frontages, all common boundaries with adjoining lots are considered side boundaries.

Note—Boundary setbacks may also be influenced by minimum building separation requirements, refer to Table 9.3.14.3.F, where there are existing buildings or to protect the future development potential or amenity of an adjoining site.

Note—Car parking structures at and below ground level are subject to alternative boundary clearances specified in Table 9.3.14.3.E.

Note—Where podiums are proposed, setbacks are zero in accordance with the relevant height of the proposed wall as set out in this table except where located in a zone in the centre zones category or the Mixed use zone and then setbacks are in accordance with the Centre or mixed use code.

Note—Separate setback provisions apply to built to boundary walls and where a building height transition is required.

Table 9.3.14.3.D—Adaptable housing elements
Dwelling access
There is a well-lit, continuous, accessible path from the car park/drop-off area to the front door or lift, with no steps from the driveway or the street footpath.
Pedestrian paths are separated as much as possible from vehicular access.
All entries into the dwelling from external paths have no more than a 10mm change in level.
Crossovers and driveways are designed to allow access by emergency vehicles.

Note—Well-lit areas are areas that comply with lighting standards AS/NZ 1158.3.1:2005 Lighting for roads and public spaces.

Note—Accessible paths have:

  • a minimum 1.2m width;
  • a maximum cross fall of 1:40;
  • gentle ramping with a maximum slope of 1:20;
  • no steps or ledges along the length of travel.
Car parking
A minimum of 1 resident car parking space is provided per adaptable housing dwelling.
This parking space has minimum dimensions of 3.8m x 6m, is clear of all obstructions and has a minimum height of 2.5m (or otherwise complies with section 3.7.2 of AS 4299-1995 Adaptable housing).
A minimum of 1 visitor car parking space is provided for persons with a disability, with dimensions in compliance with the Transport, access, parking and servicing planning scheme policy provisions for parking spaces reserved for people with disabilities.
Table 9.3.14.3.E—Siting requirements for car parking
Car parking height and form
Car parking configuration
Minimum boundary setback to parking or parking structure (m)
Front/Street
Rear
Side
Basement car parking below ground level

Note—Car parking below ground level must be designed to also allow the achievement of deep planting requirements and these setbacks do not override that requirement.

0
0
0
Above ground level <1.0m and enclosed

Note—Car parking partially below ground level must be designed to also allow the achievement of deep planting requirements and these setbacks do not override that requirement.

6
6
0
At ground level and open
4
6
1
Above ground level >1.0m and enclosed
As per the boundary setbacks for proposed wall heights in Table 9.3.14.3.C

Note—Height is to the highest point of the car parking structure including any roofing or shelter to car parking areas, measured above ground level at any point on the site. The height also includes fences, balustrades or podium planters located above the enclosed car parking structure.

Note—Where terrace areas are created on car parking structures, any roofing is to comply with boundary setback requirements for balconies specified in Table 9.3.14.3.C.

Note—A number of car parking configurations and wall heights relative to ground level may occur on a site.

Table 9.3.14.3.F—Building separation requirements
Minimum building separation
(m)
Facing habitable rooms or balconies
Habitable rooms or balconies facing non-habitable rooms or blank walls
Non-habitable rooms or blank walls
Ground
and up to 4.5m
3
1.5
1.5m or
where built to boundary walls permitted – 0.0m
2 storeys
and up to 7.5m
9
6
3
3 to 5 storeys
12
9
6
6 to 8 storeys
18
12
9
9+ storeys
24
18
12
Podium or roof terraces
Located to achieve separation in accordance with the relative level of the podium or roof location as above, along with design elements to ensure the privacy and amenity of residents within the site and adjoining or adjacent sites is not negatively impacted.

Note—Separation distances are intended to protect amenity and provide for private open spaces on upper levels that do not require screening for privacy.

Note—Considered site planning and design and strategies such as offsetting balconies, the location of private space, selective screening or other design elements can reduce building separation requirements.

9.3.14.3.G Air quality planning criteria
Pollutant
Averaging time
Health outcome protected
Criteria including background (µg/m3)
Criteria including background (ppm)
Nitrogen dioxide
1 hour
Health and wellbeing
250
0.12
Annual
Health and wellbeing
62
0.03
Sulfur dioxide
1 hour
Health and wellbeing
570
0.2
24 hours
Health and wellbeing
230
0.08
Annual
Health and wellbeing
57
0.02
Particulate matter (PM) as total suspended particulates (TSP)
Annual
Health and wellbeing
90
-
PM less than 10 µm (PM10)
24 hours
Health and wellbeing
50
-
PM less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5)
24 hours
Health and wellbeing
25
-
Annual
Health and wellbeing
8
-
Carbon monoxide
8 hours
Health and wellbeing
11,000
9
Dust deposition as insoluble solids
Annual
Protecting aesthetic environment
4g/m2/month
-
1,3-butadiene
Annual
Health and wellbeing
2.4
0.001
Acetaldehyde
1 hour
Odour
42
0.023
Ammonia
1 hour
Health and wellbeing
330
0.46
Benzene
Annual
Health and wellbeing
10
0.003
Benzo(a)pyrene (as marker for PAH)
Annual
Health and wellbeing
0.3ng/m3
-
Cyclohexane
1 hour
Health and wellbeing
19,000
5
Ethylbenzene
1 hour
Health and wellbeing
8,000
1.8
Formaldehyde
1 hour
Protecting aesthetic environment
96
0.07
24 hours
Health and wellbeing
54
0.04
n-Hexane
1 hour
Health and wellbeing
3,200
0.9
Styrene
1 hour
Odour
65
0.014
7 days
Health and wellbeing
280
0.06
Toluene
1 hour
Odour
958
0.23
24 hours
Health and wellbeing
4,100
1
Annual
Health and wellbeing
410
0.1
Xylenes (as a total of ortho, meta and para isomers)
24 hours
Health and wellbeing
1,200
0.25
Annual
Health and wellbeing
950
0.2

Notes—

Table 9.3.14.3.H Odour criteria
Pollutant
Averaging time
Health outcome protected
Criteria (odour units–OU)
Odour
1 hour
Odour
0.5 OU for tall stacks
Odour
1 hour
Odour
2.5 OU for ground-level and wake-affected
plumes from short stacks

Note—Odour criteria are to be evaluated using the 99.5th percentile concentration from dispersion modelling.

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